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Table 4 Perceived Responsibility for Reducing Healthcare Costs among U.S. Practicing Physicians (Age 30–40) and Medical Studentsa

From: Attitudes toward cost-conscious care among U.S. physicians and medical students: analysis of national cross-sectional survey data by age and stage of training

Entities with potential responsibility to reduce costs of health care Major responsibility, n (%)b
Practicing physicians Medical students p-value
Age 30–40 years (n = 350) All yearsc
(n = 3395)
Unadjustedd Adjusted for sexe
Health insurance companies 222/337 (66) 2166/2933 (74) 0.002 0.001
Hospitals and health systems 182/336 (54) 2297/2930 (78) < 0.001 < 0.001
Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers 196/336 (58) 1971/2932 (67) 0.001 < 0.001
Government 154/336 (46) 1886/2932 (64) < 0.001 < 0.001
Physician professional societies 85/334 (25) 1218/2933 (42) < 0.001 < 0.001
Employers 56/334 (17) 860/2925 (29) < 0.001 < 0.001
Trial lawyers 187/333 (56) 954/2918 (33) < 0.001 < 0.001
Patients 172/335 (51) 706/2929 (24) < 0.001 < 0.001
Individual practicing physicians 120/336 (36) 1171/2933 (40) 0.13 0.001
  1. aPhysicians (surveyed in mid-2012) and medical students (surveyed in early 2015) and were asked to rate the degree of responsibility (if any) each entity should have in reducing healthcare costs using a three-point scale (1 = no responsibility, 2 = some responsibility, 3 = major responsibility)
  2. bPercentages not all based on a denominator of 350 (for physicians age 30–40 years) or 3395 (for students) because of missing responses to some survey items
  3. cMost medical students were age 30 or younger (2657/2958, 90%)
  4. cPearson Chi square test; p-values < 0.001 considered statistically significant
  5. dMultivariate logistic regression controlling for sex; p-values < 0.001 considered statistically significant