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Table 3 Obstacles and important factors influencing careers of MD, MD-RI and MD PhD trainees

From: Exploring intentions of physician-scientist trainees: factors influencing MD and MD/PhD interest in research careers

Foreseeable non-work-related responsibilities DURING residency
  Total, n (% of 1103) MD/PhD, n (% of 226) MD-RI,
n (% of 184)
MD, n (% of 693) P value
 Raising children 614 (55.7%) 160 (70.8%) 102 (55.4%) 352 (50.8%) <.001
 Taking care of elderly parents 187 (17.0%) 52 (23.0%) 32 (17.4%) 103 (14.9%) <.05
 Being caretaker to others 130 (11.8%) 17 (7.5%) 36 (19.6%) 77 (11.1%) <.001
 Financial support of others 267 (24.2%) 44 (19.5%) 60 (32.6%) 163 (23.5%) <.01
Foreseeable non-work-related responsibilities AFTER residencya
 Raising children 919 (83.3%) 192 (85.0%) 168 (91.3%) 559 (80.7%) <.01
 Taking care of elderly parents 678 (61.5%) 160 (70.8%) 131 (71.2%) 387 (55.8%) <.001
 Being caretaker to others 322 (29.2%) 42 (18.6%) 77 (41.8%) 203 (29.3%) <.001
 Financial support of others 549 (49.8%) 99 (43.8%) 109 (59.2%) 341 (49.2%) <.01
Experienced Obstaclesa
 Balancing family and work responsibilities 396 (35.9%) 85 (37.6%) 73 (39.7%) 238 (34.3%) >.05
 Balance clinical, research, & education responsibilities 240 (21.8%) 70 (31.0%) 56 (30.4%) 114 (16.5%) <.001
 Loan repayment 172 (15.6%) 1 (0.4%) 33 (17.9%) 138 (19.9%) <.001
 Lack of opportunity/funding 143 (13.0%) 28 (12.4%) 38 (20.7%) 77 (11.1%) <.01
 Satisfactory professional development 95 (8.6%) 23 (10.2%) 14 (7.6%) 58 (8.4%) >.05
 Under-compensation 70 (6.3%) 27 (11.9%) 9 (4.9%) 34 (4.9%) <.001
 Discrimination/biases (gender/ethnicity) 67 (6.1%) 14 (6.2%) 14 (7.6%) 39 (5.6%) >.05
 Not finding position in desired location 62 (5.6%) 10 (4.4%) 17 (9.2%) 35 (5.1%) >.05
 Sexual harassment 10 (0.9%) 3 (1.3%) 2 (1.1%) 5 (0.7%) >.05c
 Malpractice/lawsuit 4 (0.4%) 0 (−-) 1 (0.5%) 3 (0.4%) >.05c
Predicted Obstaclesa
 Balancing family and work responsibilities 857 (77.7%) 189 (83.6%) 148 (80.4%) 520 (75.0%) <.05
 Balance clinical, research, & education responsibilities 549 (49.8%) 186 (82.3%) 115 (62.5%) 248 (35.8%) <.001
 Not finding position in desired location 445 (40.3%) 119 (52.7%) 77 (41.8%) 249 (35.9%) <.001
 Loan repayment 396 (35.9%) 10 (4.4%) 81 (44.0%) 305 (44.0%) <.001
 Under-compensation 301 (27.3%) 50 (22.1%) 66 (35.9%) 185 (26.7%) <.01
 Lack of opportunity/funding 279 (25.3%) 123 (54.4%) 60 (32.6%) 96 (13.9%) <.001
 Malpractice/lawsuit 267 (24.2%) 17 (7.5%) 54 (29.3%) 196 (28.3%) <.001
 Satisfactory professional development 264 (23.9%) 68 (30.1%) 53 (28.8%) 143 (20.6%) <.01
 Discrimination/biases (gender/ethnicity) 132 (12.0%) 22 (9.7%) 27 (14.7%) 83 (12.0%) >.05
 Sexual harassment 14 (1.3%) 3 (1.3%) 4 (2.2%) 7 (1.0%) >.05d
Career Intention Time Allocation: Research/Clinical Ratios
  Total, n (% of 1103) MD/PhD, n (% of 226) MD-RI,
n (% of 184)
MD, n (% of 693) P value
 100/0 18 (1.6%) 8 (3.5%) 10 (5.4%) 0 (−-) <.001 c
 75/25 152 (13.8%) 111 (49.1%) 41 (22.3%) 0 (−-) <.001
 50/50 209 (18.9%) 75 (33.2%) 134 (72.8%) 0 (−-) <.001
 25/75 529 (48.0%) 34 (15.0%) 17 (9.2%) 478 (69.0%) <.001
 0/100 138 (12.5%) 2 (0.9%) 1 (0.5%) 135 (19.5%) <.001
Most important factors in career selectionb
 Ability to balance work & personal life 746 (67.6%) 161 (71.2%) 130 (70.7%) 455 (65.7%) >.05
 Opportunities for patient care 708 (64.2%) 116 (51.3%) 131 (71.2%) 461 (66.5%) <.001
 Financial security 375 (34.0%) 82 (36.3%) 69 (37.5%) 224 (32.3%) >.05
 Opportunities to teach 333 (30.2%) 53 (23.5%) 56 (30.4%) 224 (32.3%) <.05
 Opportunities for research 298 (27.0%) 158 (69.9%) 77 (41.8%) 63 (9.1%) <.001
 Opportunities for community service 214 (19.4%) 15 (6.6%) 31 (16.8%) 168 (24.2%) <.001
 Opportunities for international work 160 (14.5%) 21 (9.3%) 36 (19.6%) 103 (14.9%) <.05
 Autonomy 157 (14.2%) 43 (19.0%) 21 (11.4%) 93 (13.4%) >.05
 Opportunities for student interactions 119 (10.8%) 23 (10.2%) 21 (11.4%) 75 (10.8%) >.05
 Prestige 74 (6.7%) 17 (7.5%) 17 (9.2%) 40 (5.8%) >.05
 Opportunities for travel 73 (6.6%) 17 (7.5%) 10 (5.4%) 46 (6.6%) >.05
 Opportunities for local work 33 (3.0%) 1 (0.4%) 6 (3.3%) 26 (3.8%) <.05
 Opportunities for national work 21 (1.9%) 2 (0.9%) 3 (1.6%) 16 (2.3%) >.05c
  1. aRespondents could select all applicable choices, will not sum to 100%
  2. bRespondents could select up to THREE choices, will not sum to 100%
  3. cFisher's Exact calculated due to minimum cell count violations
  4. bolded are statistically significant