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Table 1 Three prototypical approaches to learning

From: Measuring students’ approaches to learning in different clinical rotations

Approach Motive Strategy
Surface Extrinsic: avoid failure but don’t work too hard Focus on selected details and reproduce accurately
Deep Intrinsic: satisfy curiosity about topic Maximize understanding: read widely, discuss, reflect
Achieving Achievement: compete for highest grade Optimize organization of time and effort (study skills)