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Table 2 Perceived Responsibility for Reducing Healthcare Costs among U.S. Practicing Physicians and Medical Studentsa

From: Attitudes toward cost-conscious care among U.S. physicians and medical students: analysis of national cross-sectional survey data by age and stage of training

Entities with potential responsibility to reduce costs of health care Major responsibility, n (%)b
Practicing physicians (n = 2556) Medical students (n = 3395)
Age > 60 years
(n = 411)
Age 51–60 years
(n = 962)
Age 41–50 years
(n = 833)
Age 30–40 years
(n = 350)
p-value All yearse
(n = 3395)
p-value
Unadjustedc Adjusted for sexd Unadjustedc Adjusted for sexd
Health insurance companies 224/385 (58) 494/920 (54) 499/804 (62) 222/337 (66) < 0.001 < 0.001 2166/2933 (74) < 0.001 < 0.001
Hospitals and health systems 226/383 (59) 528/917 (58) 437/803 (54) 182/336 (54) 0.32 0.44 2297/2930 (78) < 0.001 < 0.001
Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers 217/385 (56) 506/921 (55) 458/803 (57) 196/336 (58) 0.70 0.003 1971/2932 (67) < 0.001 < 0.001
Government 186/382 (49) 400/919 (44) 333/803 (41) 154/336 (46) 0.11 0.14 1886/2932 (64) < 0.001 < 0.001
Physician professional societies 119/381 (31) 256/917 (28) 207/801 (26) 85/334 (25) 0.21 0.28 1218/2933 (42) < 0.001 < 0.001
Employers 81/380 (21) 177/917 (19) 143/798 (18) 56/334 (17) 0.39 0.45 860/2925 (29) < 0.001 < 0.001
Trial lawyers 220/383 (57) 557/914 (61) 486/803 (61) 187/333 (56) 0.34 0.50 954/2918 (33) < 0.001 < 0.001
Patients 203/381 (53) 477/920 (52) 413/803 (51) 172/335 (51) 0.94 0.03 706/2929 (24) < 0.001 < 0.001
Individual practicing physicians 153/379 (40) 359/919 (39) 257/804 (32) 120/336 (36) 0.007 < 0.001 1171/2933 (40) 0.001 < 0.001
  1. aPhysicians (surveyed in mid-2012) and medical students (surveyed in early 2015) and were asked to rate the degree of responsibility (if any) each entity should have in reducing healthcare costs using a three-point scale (1 = no responsibility, 2 = some responsibility, 3 = major responsibility)
  2. bPercentages not all based on a denominator of 350 (for physicians age 30–40 years), 833 (for physicians age 41–50 years), 962 (for physicians age 51–60 years), 411 (for physicians age > 60 years), or 3395 (for students) because of missing responses to some survey items
  3. cPearson Chi square test; p-values < 0.001 considered statistically significant
  4. dMultivariate logistic regression controlling for sex; p-values < 0.001 considered statistically significant
  5. eMost medical students were age 30 or younger (2657/2958, 90%)